Advantages and Disadvantages of Free Trade
Lifting barriers and international business through free trade is beneficial for the trading nations. However, less tax and excise duties in free trade also mean less revenue for the countries allowing foreign goods and services. These Advantages and Disadvantages of Free Trade explore both the good and the bad sides of Free trade.
What is Free Trade?
Free trade takes place when there is an agreement between two or more nations to reduce restrictions on import-export markets. By stepping into Free Trade, the participating nations mutually reduce duties, tariffs, and taxes to take advantages of Free Trade.
For example, a product manufactured in the US is exported to the UK and vice-versa hence encouraging more business opportunities. Free trade agreement allows a country to have access to more markets throughout the world. It can encourage local companies to improve their competition while relying less on resources from the government.
What is a Free Trade Area?
A free trade area (FTA) refers to a specific region wherein free trading nations signs a trade agreement to seal the economic cooperation among them.
What are the Advantages of Free Trade?
Free trade is a process that can open new markets and improve a country’s GDP hence bringing new investment opportunities. Boosting the economy, a member country can have major advantages of free trade.
1. Economic Growth is one of the common advantages of free trade
Each member nation gets to take several advantages of free trade in terms of manufacturing, commercial, and industrial strengths of every other economy signing the agreement. This means a country face slower cost burdens with more competition in the market as the prices remain low.
2. Foreign Investment Opportunities
When more business is in order through import-export, more companies are willing to invest in foreign countries. This gives way to new investments, partnerships, and opportunities to develop in markets of any size.
This means a nation can focus on creating better and stronger relationships with other governments. In addition, countries with shared borders can promote a better business relation as their relationship is less likely to go sour being the economic partner.
3. More Global production and consumption
With free trade grows more competition and consequently increases a country’s efficiency, to be on par with its competitors. It allows companies to produce goods and services of better quality and at a lower cost.
Free trade enhances the world production and consumption of internationally traded goods as every trading country produces only the selected goods at lower costs.
4. Specialization of countries
When there is stiff competition, countries tend to produce the goods that they are most specialized at. When economies use resources efficiently, it maximizes their profit. Free trade leads to international special¬ization as it enables different nations to manufacture the goods in which they advance.
International trade enables countries to obtain the advantages of specialization, which is one of the commendable advantages of Free Trade. India exporting Tea to the UK and Nepal importing Oil from gulf countries are some of the best examples of international specialization.
5. Less taxes for Businesses and Consumers
Free Trade lowers the taxes that consumers and businesses pay. A business in free trade has tax and investment protection which makes it possible to guard local businesses. Therefore, more local businesses can flourish, saving on taxes and excise duty.
This favors the consumer and results in more competition due to global agencies at the level of consumption. Fewer validations and fewer restrictions to entry can also reduce pricing for customers.
What are the Disadvantages of Free Trade?
Although a developed economy reaps most of the benefits, most developing economies are likely to face the disadvantages of Free Trade. There are several ones to consider, from the exploitation of resources to the domestic employment sector.
1. Less Jobs are the concerning disadvantages of Free Trade
Free trade directly affects the domestic job sector as it reduces the number of available opportunities in inefficient industries. Importing goods and services means a country will not depend on the local products as it used to.
The remaining positions may see a boost to their overall wages and an improvement in living standards. But it doesn’t migrate the unwanted jobs overseas. It reduces the policy of saving a job at any cost, even if opportunities are shrinking in the industry.
2. No Protection for intellectual property
Even if there are IP rights protection in place, the international governments or business rivals may override the same as they are in a firm’s home nation. Patent or processes, including branding, graphic displays, and imaging, are sometimes copied in the free trade environment.
These disadvantages of Free trade reduce a company’s opportunities to bring new jobs at the domestic level while providing sufficient wages.
3. Environmental Risks
Despite the benefits of free trade for developing countries, some limitations are worth considering. Free trade rarely considers environmental protections as the goal for business in developed nations is to exploit the natural resources in less developed regions with less strict regulations.
The main focus of free trade shifts towards the fastest, cheapest methods of creating goods or performing services. Strip mining, Clearcut logging, deforestation and other activities can increase global emissions.
4. Fewer revenue generation
Since free trade reduces taxation and duties on the exports and imports, the same may not generate higher revenues for another economy as they have acted as per the agreement. Also, the rise in competition pushes a company to produce and sell goods at lower rates.
Such competition levels can create lower revenue potential in the industries impacted by free trade the most. Moreover, those razor-thin margins make it a challenge for small business owners to provide meaningful services.
5. No safety for workers
Emerging markets rarely have worker protection in terms of wages and insurance. Even most workplaces do not follow safety protocols to avoid hazards. Some nations even permit children for heavy factory jobs that place them in dangerous conditions.
Companies like Adidas, H&M, and Nike https://www.myayan.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-outsourcing work to developing countries where workers are kept at low wages in unfriendly conditions. They are generally paid daily weekly depending on number of hours.
Conclusion on Advantages and Disadvantages of Free Trade
Free trade allows countries to create new economic opportunities for themselves. It’s a way to encourage innovation in the industrial and commercial sectors. Evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of Free trade, you can understand why there is currently no country following the free trade policy. Every nation has imposed some restrictions on the import and export of goods in the best interest of their economy.